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In the process of sequencing activities in project management, the project manager identifies and records relationships among the various project activities so that he can define the best logical sequence that can produce the greatest efficiency. In the end, he can develop a project management sequence process.


All the activities and milestones have a connection before (predecessor) it and with something after (successor) it. Simultaneously, an activity may finish while another one starts; the start of an activity causes another one to start; the start of one activity causes another activity to finish; or an activity that ends may cause another activity to end as well.

Project Management Sequence Activities

There are three sequence activities in project management:



The following are prepared for the sequence activities:  Schedule Management Plan, Activity attributes, Activity list, Milestone list, Project scope statement, Enterprise environmental factors, and the Organizational Process assets.


Tools and Techniques

Three tools are important: Precedence diagramming method (PDM), the Dependency determination, and lastly, the Leads and lags. These are discussed further in the next paragraph.



Two outputs are expected in process sequence: Project schedule network diagrams and Project documents updates.

Tools and Techniques Used in Sequencing Activities in Project Management

 There are three tools and techniques used in the project management sequence process:


Precedence diagramming method (PDM)

It is also known as Activity on Node (AON) Diagramming Method. It is a graphical representation that shows the interdependencies among different activities in a project. This tool is used to draw a Critical Path Network Diagram and other project schedule network diagrams.

Dependency determination

These are used to define the sequence of project activities according to dependencies:

  • Mandatory dependencies. The team determines those that are inherent in the work being done.
  • Discretionary dependencies. Established according to best practices where a fixed sequence is desired.
  • External dependencies. Project activities that are related with non-project activities that are outside of the control of the team.
  • Internal dependencies. Precedence relationship between various project activities and are within the team’s control.

Leads and lags

Other tools used in project management sequence are the Leads and Lags. Both used in project schedule development, lead accelerates the successor activity and are used only during finish-to-start (when an activity ends, another activity starts) activities. Lag can be found in any activity relationship types. It is characterized by a delay of a successor activity.

Activity sequencing in project management using the various tools and techniques improves efficiency in managing the project schedule. Both beginner and experienced project managers realize the importance of learning about these tools and techniques and how they can be fully used to achieve success in the project processes.


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